The overarching design of applied theatre interventions is about researching and implementing efficacious outreach projects with an aim to bring about change. When I visited Dalrymple at the University of Zululand in 2004, we discussed a dramatically straightforward and yet culturally complex school intervention. Not until young people are assigned a political mandate will they be able to make real changes in the ravaging pandemic. The seventh issue of African Theatre deals with 'the financial realities under which drama companies operate', as editor James Gibbs puts it in the Introduction. For two executive years he introduced applied performance to postgraduate students at the University of Hyderabad in India. Ola Johansson, Return to Palestine, 2016. For more on participatory democracy, see David Held, Models of Democracy Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987 , and Donatella della Porta, Can Democracy be Saved? It also offers a range of professional provisions and social services to people in the West Bank: a fully equipped theatre which is used by students in a three-year education as well as children in the camp; offices, a kitchen and a kindergarten that employ a number of local residents; a guest house that accommodates a nonstop influx of international professionals and solidarity workers, and so on.
Towards a Participatory Validation Determining an impact of an outreach project requires monitoring and evaluation; optimizing the potential for such a change requires validation. It is crucial that the initial questions relate to the specific conditions of a planned project, that the strengths and limitations of the intervention are acknowledged, and that quantitative or scientific evaluation models do not override the qualitative features of the key activities of the intervention. I will discuss the first rationale first. This produced a heuristic, community-based methodology that combined self-reflection and interpersonal dialogue, which in turn led to social mobilization, community analysis as well as to applied theatre for people without considerable education or wealth. But when will the findings be acknowledged by the ones who have deployed the young people as artistic researchers? Applied theatre is primarily about preparing participants for taking action when faced with particular situations — or determinants in health related contexts — in public, at home, at work or indeed at school. Tim Prentki and Sheila Preston, The Applied Theatre Reader London: Routledge, 2009 , 10.
This moment marks a turning point in the play. By touring Return to Palestine back to the towns, villages and refugee camps that contributed to the script of the performances, the people in these places get a chance to reflect on their own stories alongside personal stories from other West Bank and Gaza sites. Series Title: Responsibility: Ola Johansson. Ogah Abah 2002 and many others predicate theatre for development on change by. But that is just the stage setting. David Graeber, The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement London: Penguin Books, 2013 , 23.
The African project transposed Johansson's mode of research from participant observation into the realm of practice-led action research. All these objectives are relevant to validate an intervention. I emphasize their integral and applicable qualities rather than merely their estimated external impact or anecdotal internal change. Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed New York: Penguin Books, 1970. Applied theatre is not a mass medium, and therefore it is unrealistic to expect a wide-scale impact. The thesis explored possibilities to change worlds about as big as performative instantiations, with reference to artists such as Richard Foreman, Christoph Marthaler and Lars Noren and philosophers like Isaac Luria, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Judith Butler.
And which local and cultural features can be integrated into the project to encourage participatory audience feedback? The elements of the project emanated from local modes of discourse and performance, enhanced by post-independence types of dance and theatre in Tanzania. This came before the monitoring and evaluation methods discussed in her article two years later. Case studies include work in a range of institutional settings to include education, health care, museums and prisons as well as projects using performance in developing communities and cultures. Challenging divisions between subject and object, process and performance, artist and spectator, theory and practice, mind and body, the book participates in the various theoretical turns to affect, ethics and cognition to consider how and why we are moved as partakers in performance, the importance of empathy and embodiment to critical and creative engagement and the role of play and pleasure in affective practice. Ola Johansson Ola Johansson started out as an academic scholar with interests in performance art, philosophy and anthropology. In that way, direct personal experiences from the ground get disseminated not only across local communities, but throughout the occupied territories as well as countries like Jordan and Portugal.
The data and results of such a validation needs to be sourced and analysed by both quantitative and qualitative means, preferably by combining monitoring and evaluation, participatory self-evaluation and consideration of macro-contextual data. After studies in New York and Stockholm he wrote his PhD The Room's Need of a Name: A Philosophical Study of Performance Stockholm: Theatron-serien, 2000 for which he received the prize for best doctoral thesis at Stockholm University that year. I particularly remember an exercise facilitated by DramAidE in a secondary school in KwaZulu Natal, involving the characters Sipho and Hazel, where the male student Sipho asks the female student Hazel out for a date. More than ten million Africans are estimated to have died whilst the treatment was inaccessible between 1996—2003, and see: , accessed October 3, 2017. Today it is very rare to see Palestinian and Israeli culture groups visiting each other.
Lange, iManaging Modernity: Gender, State, and Nation in the Popular Drama of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania University of Bergen: Department of Social Anthropology, 2002 ; L. The E-mail message field is required. However, the model was only marginally successful, especially with a widespread faith-based emphasis on the A and B options. Copyright information Cite this chapter as: Johansson O. I am suggesting that these are the three validating cornerstones of applied theatre.
African community theatre evolved across the continent after the independence of the former colonies, and has always involved more than the act of performing theatre. Applied theatre can do more than merely provide information and skills and prompt people to take action. However, in Likokona there was no audience discussion as the council building the red house in the background was situated at hearing distance from the performance. Ola Johansson, Untitled Masasi , 2003. Furthermore, he has conducted increasingly political projects in applied performing and fine arts projects with Amanda Newall Senior Lecturer at Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm in collaboration with the Yes Men, the University of Cape Town, and in artistic residencies at SymbioticA institute, University of Western Australia and Fremantle Arts Centre. For country-specific views on theatre as education, see also S.
Balewa, iThe Bomo Project iZaria Nigeria: English Department, Ahmadu Bello University, 1982 ; A. Boal, iTheatre of the Oppressed trans. Plastow, eds, iTheatre Matters: Performance and Culture on the World Stage Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998 , pp. These interventions are worth validating in their own right, as rehearsals on a public stage, with a present and responsive audience, and with participants who are ready to face any player from the repertory of life in the round. Everyone who takes a direct interest in African performance culture probably has a favourite company. The links between the organization and the Palestinian Authorities are very weak, and the connections to Israel are completely absent. Ola Johansson, Untitled Likokona , 2004.
The scene shows the moment when Malek is shot by an Israeli sniper played by a fellow actor in a standing position to the right of the victim , followed by mourning and music from the string instrument Oud. Not until young people are assigned a political mandate will they be able to make real changes in the ravaging pandemic. Beyond information and medical campaigns the breakthrough of an effective social prevention is still challenging aid workers and researchers in Africa. The scene finishes with a song that marks the end of the drama and the beginning of the post-performance deliberation. There is only one significant place the theatre does not visit: Israel.