The variables taken into account refer i to residence, which may be stable, periodic or occasional; ii to work, which may be seasonal or occasional; iii to fruition of services, which may concern tourist services or ordinary ones. Davini A 2003-2004 Kitsch e romanzo come figure dell' esistenza, Degree Thesis in Philosophy, Facolta di Letteratura e Filosofia, Universita di Padova. Maciocco G, Tagliagambe S 1998 La città possibile, Dedalo, Bari. And why do they persist? If we do not stop at the triumphalistic descriptions on the rebirth of urban culture Worpole and Greenhalgh 1999; Landry 2000 , we cannot but emphasise how multinational control deprives people of alternatives, commercialising public space, splitting up and gentrifying the supply and marginalising alternative local, creative development Zukin 1995. Evans suggests, however, that the values and symbolism connected with universal phenomena or brands 36 G.
More specifically, we collectively miss a public space organized on a pedestrian scale, that is, a setting for free personal expression and association, for collective cultural expression and transgression, and for unencumbered human interaction and material transaction Goss 1993, pp. The managers, researchers and curators of museums and monuments of past times have been replaced by the new elite of promotion organisers, experts in redevelopment and merchants. Tourists and the City Urban environments have for many years been among the most significant of all tourist destinations. Places for Leisure as Interactive Space of the City 51 Cultural consumption economics in the post-industrial city has been widely discussed and systematically highlighted by various authors. Prospettive di integrazione ambientale nel progetto del territorio FrancoAngeli, 2004 , Urban Landscape and an ecology of creativity, in Maciocco G.
Hetherington K 1997 In place of geometry: the materiality of place. McCarthy J 2005 Cultural quarters and regeneration; the case of Wolverhampton. The first concerns its voluntary nature that clearly delineates it from other forms of social activity. However, where a number of attractions of similar or differing types aggregate alongside a range of tourism-related services, these areas take on a particular spatial, cultural, social and economic identity - now commonly but not universally recognised as a tourist precinct. They are spaces that show a lack of hierarchies; in them the boundaries between different cultural forms are removed art, education, architecture, but also tourism, television, music, sport and shopping - between the artistic and G. The sampler may also use the precinct as a place of respite or refuge but will not move beyond the fringe or specified refuge point, a cafe for example. Silvia Serreli works on urban and environmental projects in coastal areas and low-density settlements.
Her works include: Le dimensioni plurali della città ambientale. Space control therefore involves both economic elements and institutional ones, but also acts as an instrument by which cultural identities are created and maintained. This relationship in the symbol is not, however, just the potentiality of an encounter not yet realised, which thus gives the prospect of a situation of perennial waiting, like that of the shipwrecked person in the sea who sees a ship pass on the horizon and wonders whether he will be seen and therefore saved. If this is true, the process of symbolic construction that activates the collective consciousness cannot but depart from a regained relationship with reality, through which to encounter a new concept of public space. See in particular articles by Cecchini 2009 , Ciaffi and Mela 2009.
The images that separate the dream from reality separate the visible world from the invisible world, and in this way join the two worlds together. Insensitivity to the distinctive traits of places and the creation of simulacrum places marks the loss of the constitutive matrices of the city, the loss of the meaning of history and time. Bateson uses the analogy of the picture frame to place boundaries around the context of play. The relatively relaxed nature of Portuguese colonial rule, intermarriage, the mixing of Chinese and Western cultures, and the fact that Macao served as a safe haven for many Chinese reformers at odds with the Chinese authorities, including Sun Yat-sen, all combined to make Macao a very different and special place. The city that adapts to a culture and consumerism economy has been described by John Hanningan 1998 in the book Fantasy City in which the following attributes have been used for the city: theme centred, aggressively branded, in constant operation, modular in design, separate from existing neighbourhoods, post-modern and clustered.
It has expertise in the field of geospatial informations in situations of environmental disaster Intergraph e Hexagon Geospatial solutions. Tourism is one of the most suitable social phenomena for an analysis using this approach, which has many limits compared with others, but one clear advantage: the close relationship between the social sub-groups taken into consideration and respective places chosen and frequented, or, vice versa, rejected and not frequented. Bruno G 2003 Havana: memoirs of material culture. Places with a strong local entrepreneurial culture have managed to resist branding tendencies at length. A clear example is represented by the effects generated by place marketing in the process of economic and spatial transformation in recent decades in the region of 0resund in Scandinavia. The first luxury hotels and exclusive villas began to spring up, which would become the summer meeting point for high society and world economic power. It is necessary, therefore, to explore whether there are alternative opinions that refer to places of leisure as sites of reliability, resistance and potentiality Aitchison et al.
Leisure spaces may then be configured as geography-aware contexts in which travellers, exerting their freedom, will feel the responsibility to participate in the construction of urbanity that is not only the product of imaginative geographies. Only by being rooted in effectuality and in the quest for the polyvocality of places, can the project aim for authentic situations, taking its distance from exclusive attention to branding processes and forms of spectacularisation. Espejo M 1984 La ilusion lirica: Ensayo sobre Milan Kundera, Flachette, Buenos Aires. They take the shape rather of monofunctional epicentres malls, amusement parks, leisure islands, tourist villages, etc. In recent years, examples have arisen of new practices in consumer tendencies which indicate the return to a link between space and city as a way of life including systems of consumption, architecture and spare time on the one hand and a departure from mass production on the other.
Maciocco A condition of this kind does not imply or require active participation on the part of the consumers. It is a phenomenon linked with a tendential picture that features the increase of globalisation and the concentration of economic activities Sassen 1996, 1997; Klein 2000; Monbiot 2000. The first capsizes upon itself and with it all the concrete images capsize. Journal of Cultural Geography n. Huizinga J 2002 Homo Ludens, Einaudi, Torino. On the other hand, the statutory planning frame and regulatory mechanisms entail reconciling conflicts between new development and the need to protect the environmental resources that attract both investments and visitors.
Sorkin M ed 1992 Variations on a Theme Park: The New American City and the End of Public Space, Hill and Wang, New York. But this taking distance from the strength of reality may project us, indeed through leisure, into an exclusively thematic experience of the city. Baudrillard J 1970 La societé de consommation. By excluding some, others are included. The example to which the authoress refers to illustrate this attempt is particularly significant for the purposes of our argument. Competition between the various cities is strong, and it is not enough to copy the methods or processes used by other cities to be successful. In this perspective, spaces of leisure may also contribute to the formation of alternative social relations to those linked with commodification and, in this sense, the construction of civitas and, ultimately, of the city.