In addition to the traditional use for surface finishing, plating technology can now offer novel processes to fabricate high-performance films or fine microstructural bodies in the microelectronics industry. This complete textbook covers the primary parts of actual chemistry, corresponding to thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, molecular spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry and nanotechnology. The galvanostatic potential-time transients were employed to study the deposition growth process of the films. The most influence factor of delamination between copper alloy leadframe and epoxy mold compound interface is the finishing leadframe surfaces. The refined electroless deposition allows the fabrication of homogeneous high aspect-ratio nanotubes in ion track etched polycarbonate. A new, reliable and simple procedure based on the removal of the native oxide layer is presented which allows uniform plating of patterned substrates.
The corrosion mass curve breaks away when the Zr-Nb-Fe alloy is corroded for 150 d, then the corrosion rate increases rapidly. Cette technique permet donc de réaliser des attaches pouvant fonctionner à très haute température. Ohashi, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 149 2002 C642-C647 I. An Ar gas was selected to perform the physical plasma treatment on the bonding surface of Au bumps and Cu electrodes. This quantity is made from 8 chapters and starts off with an outline of the elemental experiments and concepts resulting in the advance of quantum thought, with specific emphasis at the difficulties of chemistry.
It should be noted that, in contrast to the macroscopic samples, the elastic limit of the investigated nanocrystalline Ni—W coatings is difficult to evaluate due to the presence of high dislocation density, the very small size of the crystallites and the strengthening effect of the solid solution. Three types of electroless Ni—W—P, Co—W—P and Ni—Zn—P coatings have been investigated. However, it showed delamination at the leads between the NiNiP leadframe surface and the molding compound interface after high-temperature storage for 1000 h. Electroless deposited ternary alloys have been reviewed in relation to the chemical state of the third element, its localisation and the possible influence of these on alloy properties. The experiments show that the inhibitor's effectiveness for corrosion reduction is not reflected well by the advancing contact angles of water. The experimental results presented an effective improvement in the die-shear force performance of chips and substrates assembly using the Ar plasma activation.
The quality of electroless Ni-P plating is dependent on the process of pretreatment. Its electrochemical properties have been evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and accelerated service life tests; furthermore, the results were compared with those obtained for an electrode prepared from aqueous solution. The cleaned and uncleaned leadframes were then transfer-moulded for the subsequent pull testing. Ivey, Chemistry of Materials 16 2004 1189-1194 Y. Results reveal that the oxygen level of the bond pad surface has decreased significantly after the plasma treatment.
The effect of phosphating process on the microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance in 3. Phase formation by mechanical alloying in Ti, Zr, Nb — Cu, Ni —Al equiatomic alloys has been investigated. This rapid progress reflects the potential for the electroplating plating method to become one of today's leading-edge technologies. The contact angle measurements indicate that the surface contamination increases as the heat treatment time increases. This cross-contamination is due to redeposition of Ag and Cu atoms during the plasma treatment. Based on leadframe manufacturing process, anti-tarnish is applied by dipping entire leadframe into a solution at the end of plating process.
This kind of cluster is strange for normal Sn electrodeposit. Control of Macrostructure in Plated Films and Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Microstructure 212 5. However, more copper was observed to diffuse onto the silver surface after annealing in the stamped leadframe. Following this concept, both the silver nanotubes and spongy gold nanotubes obtained by the use of the silver structures as sacrificial templates were applied in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride, proving to be extraordinarily effective catalysts. Electrodeposition parameters including current density, electrolyte pH and pulse times in a single electrolyte bath were changed. In addition to the traditional use for surface finishing, plating technology can now offer novel processes to fabricate high-performance films or fine microstructural bodies in the microelectronics industry.
The two main components of electroless plating solutions are a reducing agent and a metal salt forming a metastable redox pair to avoid homogeneous nucleation. The microstructure of plated films can be classified into seven categories: 1 metallurgical structure crystal, amorphous, solid solution, metastable, mixture ; 2 surface morphology smooth, rough, dendlight, glossness ; 3 crystalographic orientation parallel, perpendicular, texture ; 4 contact with substrate adhesive, epitaxial, coherent, misfit dislocation. Only Cu and Sn electroplating process were performed. Measurement of Preferred Orientation 265 References 269 Chapter 7. We found that benzotriazole could react with a copper atom at zero oxidation state to form a benzotriazole copper o complex when copper was immersed in a benzotriazole solution. Girard, Journal of Applied Physics 38 1967 1423-1430 E.
However, more copper was clearly observed to diffuse onto the silver surface after annealing process in the stamped leadframe. Template-embedded metal nanotubes can be interpreted as parallelled microreactors. Modern plating technology is highly advanced, and has developed to cover a wide range of applications. The unique feature of this database is that most of the plating baths are simple and contain no additives. The Co content in the deposited alloys declined from 70 at. But the surface morphology of Sn pillars is totally different with the Sn electrodeposit from other references.
The water contact angle increased from about 71° for the specimens with no heat treatment to about 85° for those with a 5 h heat treatment while the pull-out strength decreased by 43%. Leadframe pull-out tests and water contact angle measurements were performed to establish the correlation between the oxide thickness and the measured adhesion strength. Bakonyi, Electrochimica Acta 52 2007 3813-3821 V. A low contact angle can be determined on the surface of flex substrates for flex substrates activating with the argon plasma, indicating the containments can be removed by argon plasma, and then a clean bonding surface was achieved. This swift development displays the possibility of the electroplating plating approach to develop into certainly one of trendy modern applied sciences. During electroplating of high aspect ratio structures with different widths, the deposition rate decreases with increasing depth.