Federal managers are employing a new policy instrument called Challenge. Its results are briefly presented, coming from an ethnographic approach with participant observation. The challenges of reclaiming and maintaining an urban commons are substantial, but the need for them is urgent. We also discuss design flexibility as an intervening variable that is critical in intermediating conflicts that commons organizations cannot resolve. Ostrom applied this framework to global climate change policy: 'Climate change is a global collective-action problem. Il est ainsi possible de donner une définition générale des biens communs :.
Major obstacles in this regard are, first, the lack of insufficient incentives for promoting research into sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity related issues, which have no direct high commercial value output Dedeurwaerdere, Krishna and Pascual, 2007;Reichman et al. Ainda, e apoiando-se nos estudos de Coriat 2011 será ressaltada a importância da existência de estruturas de governanças para garantir a durabilidade e sustentabilidade de determinados commons, a fim de evitar uma exploração exacerbada de um recurso natural Tragédia dos Comuns ou a subutilização de um recurso imaterial Tragédia dos Anticommons. To better illustrate these issues, a comparison is made between Better Place and Tesla Motors models that will allow us to draw several lessons from their respective strategies, particularly on innovation as a common good. Ostrom was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences. There was a surprising amount of naivete and omission of complexity in the discussion of repositories. Understanding Knowledge as a Commons: from theory to practice.
In particular, publication moratoria and data retention policies have been enacted to 'reward' data producers and ensure data quality control. While modern genomics research often adheres to community norms emphasizing open data sharing, many genomics institutes and projects have recently nuanced such norms with a corpus of data release policies. Utilizando datos de la Encuesta de Uso de Tiempo enut del inegi, el artículo desarrolla un perfil del consumo de medios y bienes culturales de la población mexicana y del acceso a Internet. We offer a typology of settings to bridge scientific and indigenous knowledge systems and to enhance governance of the environmental commons in contexts of change. Copyright © 2014 System Dynamics Society El presente artículo muestra las reflexiones etnográficas de una investigadora que indaga sobre el rol de un grupo de mujeres dentro de la comunidad del Software Libre en Colombia. There are many articles which studied outcomes of convergence while there are few articles that try to study the process of convergence. Specifically, this Administrative Profile features the work of Tammi Marcoullier, program manager for Challenge.
Elinor Ostrom Elinor Ostrom is Arthur F. Contributors consider the concept of the commons historically and offer an analytical framework for understanding knowledge as a shared social-ecological system. Envisioning the right to the city as the fundamental human right, a demand for a just and sustainable social order where collective resources are respected and regenerated to support life, entails a democratic approach to the creation of knowledge about our cities. Precisely, knowledge as a 'common good' attempts to deconstruct the contradiction of scarcity through several mechanisms. Yet, this approach has also produced tensions within development studies, which remain largely unresolved Bardhan and Ray, 2008a. In recent years, both developing and industrialised societies have experienced riots and civil unrest over the corporate exploitation of fresh water.
European Journal of Information Systems 2006 15, 511—524. Ostrom is widely regarded as the dean of commons scholarship, a field which she helped create. It also inspired work on the governance of public economics Ostrom et al. Should we regulate the appropriation of knowledge? In 2009, she became the first — and so far, only — woman to win a Nobel Prize for Economics a prize shared with Oliver Williamson. The results mostly support the hypothesized relationships. Returned to Danish farming — but now in its contemporary settings — it is concluded that the framework of commons not adequately can be copied-and-pasted into present context due to the complex interconnectivity where local agriculture have boundless prerequisites and effects. The Digital Library is well-worth checking out as a gateway to thousands of articles on various commons.
Keywords: Open Design, openness, social innovation, Open Design Ecosystem. We then propose a novel method for uncovering political opinion dynamics using on-line data gathering. In undertaking this exploration, we take a step back from the immediacy of the issues of carbon property rights to explore the way they are framed through institutions and disciplines. In other words, at least one point of departure towards the exercise of the right to the city as right to the commons is the creation of appropriate knowledges and development of practices and norms for sharing and reworking those knowledges. Our focus is on indigenous and scientific knowledge, but the typology offers lessons to bridge diverse knowledge systems more generally, and in ways that are sensitive to a moral, political and process-based approach. The increase in the number of chairs in engineering and chemistry contributed most to the growth in the total factor productivity. Particularly in healthcare sciences and Fig.
Vila Seca and Criúva, rural districts of the town of Caxias do Sul, at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazilian southernmost state, were empirically picked as the study area. In recognition of these obstacles, science policymakers have increasingly focused on alternative methods for promoting science and innovation, based on the networking of research infrastructure into global scientific research commons. Sob a perspectiva de melhor compreender as peculiaridades de cada recurso que será apresentado, o presente estudo se prestará a estabelecer distinções entre os commons tradicionais e de conhecimento, bem como o open-acess. The current availability of large datasets and the ease by which Internet social data can now be collected makes some validation of theoretical social models a less difficult task. Different environmental commons are shared by diverse social actors with unique although not independent forms and types of knowledge e. Some examples of this include decisions about opening up rice swiddens Nicholas et al.
Responsibility: edited by Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom. Sí dichas sociedades juegan un rol significativo en la gestión colectiva de derechos de autor en el entorno en línea, cuyas tecnologías progresivamente empoderan la gestión individual, dependerá en parte de poner fin a los excesos y restablecer la credibilidad de las sociedades frente a los intereses de sus representados. It is stated, that the concept in contemporary discourses has a widespread spectrum of connotations and is engaged for descriptive, prescriptive, and normative purposes. This chapter tries to throw light on this coupling of Action Research and the effort towards new uses of an old phenomenon, showing that the reinvention of the commons can offer fresh hope for a more sustainable and democratic future. On the one hand, policy and policy processes are generally recognized as having a political nature because they prioritize the generation of will rather than knowledge. We consider this stock as a common. Specifically, the robustness and viability of these organisations were analysed.
Socio-environmental conflicts events between family farming activities and urban practices motivate this research. There is no individual cognition. Climate change threatens to have wide-ranging impacts on the sustainability of ecosystems and presents enormous challenges for conventional modes of socioeconomic governance. You co A set of essays about knowledge as a commons. Il est ainsi possible de donner une définition générale des biens communs :. We conclude with the rudiments of a contingency theory describing when and why a commons organization can be advantageous for design production.